1.25" x 1.25" - Nocturnal Dials such as this first appeared in history during the 10th century. Vikings used stardials similar to this one to navigate the northern Atlantic. This reproduction stems from nocturnal dials commonly used since the 16th century. When Chistopher Columbus and Saint Augustine were exploring the globe, they used instruments like these to help chart their voyages. Instructions: 1) Set the pointer on the inner wheel of the stardial to the current month. 2) Hold the stardial upside down by the flange. 3) Sight the North Star (polaris) through the centere hole. Hold the stardial close to the eye to sight Polaris, then extend your arm while keeping the star in view. 4) Align the pointer arm of the stardial parallel to the line formed by the Alpha and Beta stars of Ursa MAjor (i.e. the two stars at the end of the scoop of the Big Dipper). 5) The time will be indicated on the inner ring of the stardial where the arm crosses the time scale. *During daylight savings time an hour must be added to the time, as this timpiece only provides true or 'natural' time.